Major crops in India can be classified in to two category.
- Food crops : Rice, Wheat, Maize etc are food crops
- Non Food Crops : Cotton, Rupper, Jute etc comes under the category of non food crops.
- Second largest producer of rice the world after China.
- Rice is a food crop of majority of people in India.
- In the areas of less rainfall it grows with the help of irrigation.
- The crops requires a temperature of about 25 degree and high humidity with annual rainfall of above 100 cm.
- The field should be in water during growing and dry during harvesting.
- This crops requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of harvesting.
- 50 to 70 cm rainfall annually
- The crop cultivated mainly in the north and north western part of the country.
- Also there are two zones for the crop (i) The Ganga-Satluj in north (ii) Black soil in the Deccan
- The major Wheat producing state are Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
- It is a food crop treated both as food and fodder.
- Karnataka, UP, Bihar, Andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh are the major states producing Maize
- It requires a temperature of 21 to 30 Degree and grows in alluvial soil.
- Production of the crop are increased by the modern input and such as HYV seeds, fertilizers and irrigation.
- Jowar, bajra and ragi are the inmportant millet in India
- These are known as coarse grain having high nutritional value.
- Jowar is a rainfed crop grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
- Jowar producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andrapradesh and Madhyapradesh
- Bajra are grwon in well sandy soil and shallow black soil
- Major bajra producing states are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana and Gujarath
- Ragi is a crop of dry season and grows well on red,black sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
- Major ragi producing states are Karanataka, TamilNadu, Homachal Pradesh Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh
- India is the largest producer of pulses as well as the consumer of pulses in the world
- Pulses are the main source of proteint in the food
- Major pulses are tur,urad, moong, masur, peas, and gram
- These crop need less moist and survive even in dry condtition
- These are grown in rotation with other crops
- Major pulse producing state are Rajasthan, Madhyapradesh, Uttarpradesh Maharashtra and Karnataka
- These help the soil to keep the fertility and these grown in rotation with other crops
Food crop other than grains
- It is a tropical as well as subtropical crop
- It grow well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21 degree to 27 degree and annual rainfall of 75 cm to 100 cm
- Irrigation is required for the region of low rainfall
- Major states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar
- Approximately 12% of total cropped area of the country cover oilseed
- India is the third largest producer of oilseed in the world after Canada and China
- Main oil seed are Soyabean, Coconut, groundnut, sesamum, sunflower cotton seed and castor seeds
- Some of these are used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments
- This is an example of plantation agriculture
- The crop is introduced by British as beverage crop
- The plant grows in both subtropical and tropical climates endowed with the deep and fertile soil
- The tea is a labour indutry which need skilled labour
- The major states that produce tea are Assam, hills ofDarjeling, Westbengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
- Indian coffee is known for its good quality
- Initially its cultivation was introduced in the Baba Budan Hills and later cultivated in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
- The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is produced in the country
HortiCulture Crops :
- India is the producer of tropical as well as temperature fruits
- India produces 13% of world vegitables
- The main fruits are Mangoes, Bananas, Orange, apple, grape, pea cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato
NON FOOD CROP
- It is an equitorial crop but also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas
- It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200cm and temperature above 25 degree
- Rubber is an important industrial raw material
- The crop is grown mainly in Keral, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andman and Nicobar island and Garo hills of Meghalaya
Fibre Crops :
- Cotton, jute hemp and natural silk are the four major crops grown in India
- The silk is obtained from silkworm foe on green leaves specially mulberry
- Thr process of rearing of silkworm for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture
- The other crop are grown in the soil
- India is believed to be the original home land of cotton
- Cotton is one of the main raw material for textile industry
- It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, and in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau
- Maharashtra Gujarath, Madhya Pradesh , Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the major producers
- Jute grown in drained fertile soil in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year
- High temperature required for the growth
- West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, and Meghalaya and Assam are the major producers of jute
- It is used to make bags, mats, ropes, yarn and other artefacts