Major Crops In India

Major crops in India can be classified in to two category.

  • Food crops         : Rice, Wheat, Maize etc are food crops
  • Non Food Crops : Cotton, Rupper, Jute etc comes under the category of non food crops.

FOOD CROPS

Rice : 

  • Second largest producer of rice the world after China.
  • Rice is a food crop of majority of people in India.
  • In the areas of less rainfall it grows with the help of irrigation.
  • The crops requires a temperature of about 25 degree and high humidity with annual rainfall of above 100 cm.
  • The field should be in water during growing and dry during harvesting.

Wheat : 

  • This crops requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of harvesting.
  • 50 to 70 cm rainfall annually
  • The crop cultivated mainly in the north and north western part of the country.
  • Also there are two zones for the crop (i) The Ganga-Satluj in north (ii) Black soil in the Deccan
  • The major Wheat producing state are Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh

Maize : 

  • It is a food crop treated both as food and fodder.
  • Karnataka, UP, Bihar, Andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh are the major states producing Maize
  • It requires a temperature of 21 to 30 Degree and grows in alluvial soil.
  • Production of the crop are increased by the modern input and such as HYV seeds, fertilizers and irrigation.

Millets : 

  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are the inmportant millet in India
  • These are known as coarse grain having high nutritional value.
  • Jowar is a rainfed crop grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
  • Jowar producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andrapradesh and Madhyapradesh
  • Bajra are grwon in well sandy soil and shallow black soil
  • Major bajra producing states are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana and Gujarath
  • Ragi is a crop of dry season and grows well on red,black sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
  • Major ragi producing states are Karanataka, TamilNadu, Homachal Pradesh Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh
Bajra                                                                                                                  Ragi

Pulses : 

  • India is the largest producer of pulses as well as the consumer of pulses in the world
  • Pulses are the main source of proteint in the food
  • Major pulses are tur,urad, moong, masur, peas, and gram
  • These crop need less moist and survive even in dry condtition
  • These are grown in rotation with other crops
  • Major pulse producing state are Rajasthan, Madhyapradesh, Uttarpradesh Maharashtra and Karnataka
  • These help the soil to keep the fertility and these grown in rotation with other crops

Food crop other than grains

SugarCane :

  • It is a tropical as well as subtropical crop
  • It grow well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21 degree to 27 degree and annual rainfall of 75 cm to 100 cm
  • Irrigation is required for the region of low rainfall
  • Major states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar

Oilseed : 

  • Approximately 12% of total cropped area of the country cover oilseed
  • India is the third largest producer of oilseed in the world after Canada and China
  • Main oil seed are Soyabean, Coconut, groundnut, sesamum, sunflower cotton seed and castor seeds
  • Some of these are used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments

Tea : 

  • This is an example of plantation agriculture
  • The crop is introduced by British as beverage crop
  • The plant grows in both subtropical and tropical climates endowed with the deep and fertile soil
  • The tea is a labour indutry which need skilled labour
  • The major states that produce tea are Assam, hills ofDarjeling, Westbengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala

Coffee : 

  • Indian coffee is known for its good quality
  • Initially its cultivation was introduced in the Baba Budan Hills and later cultivated in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
  • The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is produced in the country

HortiCulture Crops :

  • India is the producer of tropical as well as temperature fruits
  • India produces 13% of world vegitables
  • The main fruits are Mangoes, Bananas, Orange, apple, grape, pea cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato

NON FOOD CROP

Rubber : 

  • It is an equitorial crop but also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas
  • It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200cm and temperature above 25 degree
  • Rubber is an important industrial raw material
  • The crop is grown mainly in Keral, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andman and Nicobar island and Garo hills of Meghalaya

Fibre Crops :

  • Cotton, jute hemp and natural silk are the four major crops grown in India
  • The silk is obtained from silkworm foe on green leaves specially mulberry
  • Thr process of rearing of silkworm for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture
  • The other crop are grown in the soil

Cotton : 

  • India is believed to be the original home land of cotton
  • Cotton is one of the main raw material for textile industry
  • It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, and in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau
  • Maharashtra Gujarath, Madhya Pradesh , Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the major producers

Jute : 

  • Jute grown in drained fertile soil in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year
  • High temperature required for the growth
  • West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, and Meghalaya and Assam are the major producers of jute
  • It is used to make bags, mats, ropes, yarn and other artefacts
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